Apianus, P.Cosmographicus liber... Item eiusdem Gemmae Phrysii Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione... Antwerpen, 1533.

Well known German humanist, mathematician, geographer, Ingolstadt University professor of mathematics, creator of mathematical instruments Petro Apianus‘s (real name Peter Bienewitz, 1495–1552) treatise Cosmography book..., 2 nd edition (first edition in 1524), to which another treatise is attached – first edition of Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione by famous of that time Dutch scientist, physician Reiner Gemma Frisius (1508–1555). This book which explained many geographic, astronomical and navigational calculations as far as XVI c. was very popular (reissued more than 40 times and translated into 14 languages). The book contains many different mathematical calculation devices, maps, astronomical devices, measurement examples, illustrations, among them there are 4 volvelles

Volvelles are mathematical and astronomical instruments to perform various calculations as precisely as by wooden, brass or ivory devices made using the same principle. Paper instruments were more easily accessible to the broad public than other complex and expensive materials of astronomical calculation and measurement devices. Volvelles inlaid in books consisted of several moveable disks attached to the one containing marked degrees, numbers and tables. Mostly the devices were already fully prepared for the use, in certain publications on separate pages there were additional disk planchets for restoration - in case they were damaged or lost. Volvelles were used to calculate the height of buildings, depth of dug pits or wells, distance between various objects as well as for establishing the position of stars, constellations or planets in the celestial dome. Ways of using instruments were explained in the text

P. Apianus‘s (Peter Bienewitz, 1495–1552) and R. Gemma Frizius‘s (1508–1555) treatise Cosmography... translation into Spanish